The Tumor Metabolic Microenvironment: Lessons from Lactate.
The extracellular milieu of tumors is generally assumed to be immunosuppressive due in part to metabolic factors. Here, we review methods for probing the tumor metabolic microenvironment. In parallel, we consider the resulting available evidence, with a focus on lactate, which is the most strongly increased metabolite in bulk tumors. Limited microenvironment concentration measurements suggest depletion of glucose and modest accumulation of lactate (less than 2-fold). Isotope tracer measurements show rapid lactate exchange between the tumor and circulation. Such exchange is catalyzed by MCT transporters, which cotransport lactate and protons (H). Rapid lactate exchange seems at odds with tumor lactate accumulation. We propose a potential resolution to this paradox. Because of the high pH of tumor cells relative to the microenvironment, H-coupled transport by MCTs tends to drive lactate from the interstitium into tumor cells. Accordingly, lactate may accumulate preferentially in tumor cells, not the microenvironment. Thus, although they are likely subject to other immunosuppressive metabolic factors, tumor immune cells may not experience a high lactate environment. The lack of clarity regarding microenvironmental lactate highlights the general need for careful metabolite measurements in the tumor extracellular milieu.