Tissue mechanics regulates form, function, and dysfunction.
Morphogenesis encompasses the developmental processes that reorganize groups of cells into functional tissues and organs. The spatiotemporal patterning of individual cell behaviors is influenced by how cells perceive and respond to mechanical forces, and determines final tissue architecture. Here, we review recent work examining the physical mechanisms of tissue morphogenesis in vertebrate and invertebrate models, discuss how epithelial cells employ contractility to induce global changes that lead to tissue folding, and describe how tissue form itself regulates cell behavior. We then highlight novel tools to recapitulate these processes in engineered tissues.