A Systematic Analysis of Factors Localized to Damaged Chromatin Reveals PARP-Dependent Recruitment of Transcription Factors.
Localization to sites of DNA damage is a hallmark of DNA damage response (DDR) proteins. To identify DDR factors, we screened epitope-tagged proteins for localization to sites of chromatin damaged by UV laser microirradiation and found >120 proteins that localize to damaged chromatin. These include the BAF tumor suppressor complex and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate protein TAF15. TAF15 contains multiple domains that bind damaged chromatin in a poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-dependent manner, suggesting a possible role as glue that tethers multiple PAR chains together. Many positives were transcription factors; > 70% of randomly tested transcription factors localized to sites of DNA damage, and of these, ∼90% were PARP dependent for localization. Mutational analyses showed that localization to damaged chromatin is DNA-binding-domain dependent. By examining Hoechst staining patterns at damage sites, we see evidence of chromatin decompaction that is PARP dependent. We propose that PARP-regulated chromatin remodeling at sites of damage allows transient accessibility of DNA-binding proteins.