Structural insights into RNA polymerases of negative-sense RNA viruses.

TitleStructural insights into RNA polymerases of negative-sense RNA viruses.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsVelthuis, AJWTe, Grimes, JM, Fodor, E
JournalNat Rev Microbiol
Volume19
Issue5
Pagination303-318
Date Published2021/05/19
ISSN1740-1534
KeywordsAnimals, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases, Humans, Protein Conformation, RNA Viruses, Viral Proteins
Abstract

RNA viruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as the influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, Ebola virus, measles virus and rabies virus. The genomes of these viruses consist of single or multiple RNA segments that assemble with oligomeric viral nucleoprotein into ribonucleoprotein complexes. Replication and transcription of the viral genome is performed by ~250-450 kDa viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that also contain capping or cap-snatching activity. In this Review, we compare recent high-resolution X-ray and cryoelectron microscopy structures of RNA polymerases of negative-sense RNA viruses with segmented and non-segmented genomes, including orthomyxoviruses, peribunyaviruses, phenuiviruses, arenaviruses, rhabdoviruses, pneumoviruses and paramyxoviruses. In addition, we discuss how structural insights into these enzymes contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of viral transcription and replication, and how we can use these insights to identify targets for antiviral drug design.

DOI10.1038/s41579-020-00501-8
Alternate JournalNat Rev Microbiol
PubMed ID33495561
PubMed Central IDPMC7832423
Grant List / WT_ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
R21 AI147172 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
206579/Z/17/Z / WT_ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
200835/Z/16/Z / WT_ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
MR/R009945/1 / MRC_ / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom