sp. ATCC 55076 harbours the largest actinomycete chromosome to date and the kistamicin biosynthetic gene cluster.
Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) have served as potent clinical drugs and as an inspiration to chemists in various disciplines. Among known GPAs, complestatin, chloropeptin, and kistamicin are unique in that they contain an unusual indole-phenol crosslink. The mechanism of formation of this linkage is unknown, and to date, the biosynthetic gene cluster of only one GPA with an indole-phenol crosslink, that of complestatin, has been identified. Here, we report the genome sequence of the kistamicin producer sp. ATCC 55076. We find that this strain harbours the largest actinobacterial chromosome to date, consisting of a single linear chromosome of ∼13.1 Mbp. AntiSMASH analysis shows that ∼32 biosynthetic gene clusters and ∼10% of the genome are devoted to production of secondary metabolites, which include 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine and nomuricin, a new anthraquinone-type pentacyclic compound that we report herein. The kistamicin gene cluster () was identified bioinformatically. A unique feature of is that it contains two cytochrome P450 enzymes, which likely catalyze three crosslinking reactions. These findings set the stage for examining the biosynthesis of kistamicin and its unusual indole-phenol crosslink in the future.