Quantifying Nitric Oxide Flux Distributions.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a radical that is used as an attack molecule by immune cells. NO can interact and damage a range of biomolecules, and the biological outcome for bacteria assaulted with NO will be governed by how the radical distributes within their biochemical reaction networks. Measurement of those NO fluxes is complicated by the low abundance and transience of many of its reaction products. To overcome this challenge, we use computational modeling to translate measurements of several biochemical species (e.g., NO, O, NO) into NO flux distributions. In this chapter, we provide a detailed protocol, which includes experimental measurements and computational modeling, to estimate the NO flux distribution in an Escherichia coli culture. Those fluxes will have uncertainty associated with them and we also discuss how further experiments and modeling can be employed for flux refinement.