Phase separation in biology and disease-a symposium report.

TitlePhase separation in biology and disease-a symposium report.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsCable, J, Brangwynne, C, Seydoux, G, Cowburn, D, Pappu, RV, Castañeda, CA, Berchowitz, LE, Chen, Z, Jonikas, M, Dernburg, A, Mittag, T, Fawzi, NL
JournalAnn N Y Acad Sci
Date Published2019 Jun 14
ISSN1749-6632
Abstract

Phase separation of multivalent protein and RNA molecules enables cells the formation of reversible nonstoichiometric, membraneless assemblies. These assemblies, referred to as biomolecular condensates, help with the spatial organization and compartmentalization of cellular matter. Each biomolecular condensate is defined by a distinct macromolecular composition. Distinct condensates have distinct preferential locations within cells, and they are associated with distinct biological functions, including DNA replication, RNA metabolism, signal transduction, synaptic transmission, and stress response. Several proteins found in biomolecular condensates have also been implicated in disease, including Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and several types of cancer. Disease-associated mutations in these proteins have been found to affect the material properties of condensates as well as the driving forces for phase separation. Understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic forces driving the formation and dissolution of biomolecular condensates via spontaneous and driven phase separation is an important step in understanding the processes associated with biological regulation in health and disease.

DOI10.1111/nyas.14126
Alternate JournalAnn. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PubMed ID31199001
Grant ListRGP0045/2018 / / Human Frontiers Science Program /
R01GM112846 / / National Institute of General Medical Sciences /
R01GM118530 / / National Institutes of Health /
DP2-GM-119137 / / National Institutes of Health /
R35 GM124633-01 / / National Institutes of Health /
GM-117212 / / National Institutes of Health /
1845734 / / National Science Foundation /
EF-1105617 / / National Science Foundation /
IOS-1359682 / / National Science Foundation /
MCB-1146621 / / National Science Foundation /
CAREER award 1750462 / / National Science Foundation /
55108535 / / Simons Foundation and Howard Hughes Medical Institute /
17-IIP-369 / / ALS Association /
18-IIP-400 / / ALS Association /
/ / American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities /
/ / St. Jude Children's Research Hospital /