Mechanisms of epitranscriptomic gene regulation.
Chemical modifications on RNA can regulate fundamental biological processes. Recent efforts have illuminated the chemical diversity of posttranscriptional ("epitranscriptomic") modifications on eukaryotic messenger RNA and have begun to elucidate their biological roles. In this review, we discuss our current molecular understanding of epitranscriptomic RNA modifications and their effects on gene expression. In particular, we highlight the role of modifications in mediating RNA-protein interactions, RNA structure, and RNA-RNA base pairing, and how these macromolecular interactions control biological processes in the cell.