Looping back to leap forward: transcription enters a new era.

TitleLooping back to leap forward: transcription enters a new era.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsLevine, M, Cattoglio, C, Tjian, R
JournalCell
Volume157
Issue1
Pagination13-25
Date Published2014 Mar 27
ISSN1097-4172
KeywordsAnimals, Cell Differentiation, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Transcription Factors, Transcription, Genetic
Abstract

<p>Comparative genome analyses reveal that organismal complexity scales not with gene number but with gene regulation. Recent efforts indicate that the human genome likely contains hundreds of thousands of enhancers, with a typical gene embedded in a milieu of tens of enhancers. Proliferation of cis-regulatory DNAs is accompanied by increased complexity and functional diversification of transcriptional machineries recognizing distal enhancers and core promoters and by the high-order spatial organization of genetic elements. We review progress in unraveling one of the outstanding mysteries of modern biology: the dynamic communication of remote enhancers with target promoters in the specification of cellular identity. </p>

DOI10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.009
Alternate JournalCell
PubMed ID24679523
PubMed Central IDPMC4059561
Grant ListGM34431 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
GM46638 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
R37 CA025417 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
R01 GM034431 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
/ / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / United States
R01 GM046638 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
R37 GM046638 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States