Lactate: the ugly duckling of energy metabolism.

TitleLactate: the ugly duckling of energy metabolism.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsRabinowitz, JD, Enerbäck, S
JournalNat Metab
Volume2
Issue7
Pagination566-571
Date Published2020 Jul
ISSN2522-5812
Abstract

<p>Lactate, perhaps the best-known metabolic waste product, was first isolated from sour milk, in which it is produced by lactobacilli. Whereas microbes also generate other fermentation products, such as ethanol or acetone, lactate dominates in mammals. Lactate production increases when the demand for ATP and oxygen exceeds supply, as occurs during intense exercise and ischaemia. The build-up of lactate in stressed muscle and ischaemic tissues has established lactate's reputation as a deleterious waste product. In this Perspective, we summarize emerging evidence that, in mammals, lactate also serves as a major circulating carbohydrate fuel. By providing mammalian cells with both a convenient source and sink for three-carbon compounds, circulating lactate enables the uncoupling of carbohydrate-driven mitochondrial energy generation from glycolysis. Lactate and pyruvate together serve as a circulating redox buffer that equilibrates the NADH/NAD ratio across cells and tissues. This reconceptualization of lactate as a fuel-analogous to how Hans Christian Andersen's ugly duckling is actually a beautiful swan-has the potential to reshape the field of energy metabolism.</p>

DOI10.1038/s42255-020-0243-4
Alternate JournalNat Metab
PubMed ID32694798