Interactome and Proteome Dynamics Uncover Immune Modulatory Associations of the Pathogen Sensing Factor cGAS.
Viral DNA sensing is an essential component of the mammalian innate immune response. Upon binding viral DNA, the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) catalyzes the production of cyclic dinucleotides to induce type I interferons. However, little is known about how cGAS is homeostatically maintained or regulated upon infection. Here, we define cytoplasmic cGAS interactions with cellular and viral proteins upon herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in primary human fibroblasts. We compare several HSV-1 strains (wild-type, d109, d106) that induce cytokine responses and apoptosis and place cGAS interactions in the context of temporal proteome alterations using isobaric-labeling mass spectrometry. Follow-up analyses establish a functional interaction between cGAS and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase-like protein OASL. The OAS-like domain interacts with the cGAS Mab21 domain, while the OASL ubiquitin-like domain further inhibits cGAS-mediated interferon response. Our findings explain how cGAS may be inactively maintained in cellular homeostasis, with OASL functioning as a negative feedback loop for cytokine induction.