Integrated sample inactivation, amplification, and Cas13-based detection of SARS-CoV-2.
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted that new diagnostic technologies are essential for controlling disease transmission. Here, we develop SHINE (SHERLOCK and HUDSON Integration to Navigate Epidemics), a sensitive and specific integrated diagnostic tool that can detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA from unextracted samples. We combine the steps of SHERLOCK into a single-step reaction and optimize HUDSON to accelerate viral inactivation in nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva. SHINE's results can be visualized with an in-tube fluorescent readout - reducing contamination risk as amplification reaction tubes remain sealed - and interpreted by a companion smartphone application. We validate SHINE on 50 nasopharyngeal patient samples, demonstrating 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to RT-PCR with a sample-to-answer time of 50 minutes. SHINE has the potential to be used outside of hospitals and clinical laboratories, greatly enhancing diagnostic capabilities.