The Impact of Space and Time on the Functional Output of the Genome.
Over the past two decades, it has become clear that the multiscale spatial and temporal organization of the genome has important implications for nuclear function. This review centers on insights gained from recent advances in light microscopy on our understanding of transcription. We discuss spatial and temporal aspects that shape nuclear order and their consequences on regulatory components, focusing on genomic scales most relevant to function. The emerging picture is that spatiotemporal constraints increase the complexity in transcriptional regulation, highlighting new challenges, such as uncertainty about how information travels from molecular factors through the genome and space to generate a functional output.