Hepatitis E Virus Replication.

TitleHepatitis E Virus Replication.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsLeDesma, R, Nimgaonkar, I, Ploss, A
JournalViruses
Volume11
Issue8
Date Published2019 08 06
ISSN1999-4915
KeywordsGenome, Viral, Hepatitis E, Hepatitis E virus, Humans, Nucleic Acid Conformation, Open Reading Frames, Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Viral Proteins, Virus Replication
Abstract

<p>Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a small quasi-enveloped, (+)-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family. There are at least 20 million HEV infections annually and 60,000 HEV-related deaths worldwide. HEV can cause up to 30% mortality in pregnant women and progress to liver cirrhosis in immunocompromised individuals and is, therefore, a greatly underestimated public health concern. Although a prophylactic vaccine for HEV has been developed, it is only licensed in China, and there is currently no effective, non-teratogenic treatment. HEV encodes three open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 is the largest viral gene product, encoding the replicative machinery of the virus including a methyltransferase, RNA helicase, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. ORF1 additionally contains a number of poorly understood domains including a hypervariable region, a putative protease, and the so-called 'X' and 'Y' domains. ORF2 is the viral capsid essential for formation of infectious particles and ORF3 is a small protein essential for viral release. In this review, we focus on the domains encoded by ORF1, which collectively mediate the virus' asymmetric genome replication strategy. We summarize what is known, unknown, and hotly debated regarding the coding and non-coding regions of HEV ORF1, and present a model of how HEV replicates its genome.</p>

DOI10.3390/v11080719
Alternate JournalViruses
PubMed ID31390784
PubMed Central IDPMC6723718
Grant ListT32GM007388 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
R01 AI138797 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
R01AI107301 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
R01 AI107301 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
T32 GM007388 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
R01 AI138797 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States