Enhanced mosquito vectorial capacity underlies the Cape Verde Zika epidemic.

TitleEnhanced mosquito vectorial capacity underlies the Cape Verde Zika epidemic.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsRose, NH, Dabo, S, Leal, Sda Veiga, Sylla, M, Diagne, CT, Faye, O, Faye, O, Sall, AA, McBride, CS, Lambrechts, L
JournalPLoS Biol
Volume20
Issue10
Paginatione3001864
Date Published2022 Oct
ISSN1545-7885
KeywordsAedes, Animals, Cabo Verde, Epidemics, Humans, Mosquito Vectors, Saliva, Zika Virus, Zika Virus Infection
Abstract

<p>The explosive emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) across the Pacific and Americas since 2007 was associated with hundreds of thousands of human cases and severe outcomes, including congenital microcephaly caused by ZIKV infection during pregnancy. Although ZIKV was first isolated in Uganda, Africa has so far been exempt from large-scale ZIKV epidemics, despite widespread susceptibility among African human populations. A possible explanation for this pattern is natural variation among populations of the primary vector of ZIKV, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Globally invasive populations of Ae. aegypti outside of Africa are considered effective ZIKV vectors because they are human specialists with high intrinsic ZIKV susceptibility, whereas African populations of Ae. aegypti across the species' native range are predominantly generalists with low intrinsic ZIKV susceptibility, making them less likely to spread viruses in the human population. We test this idea by studying a notable exception to the patterns observed across most of Africa: Cape Verde experienced a large ZIKV outbreak in 2015 to 2016. We find that local Ae. aegypti in Cape Verde have substantial human-specialist ancestry, show a robust behavioral preference for human hosts, and exhibit increased susceptibility to ZIKV infection, consistent with a key role for variation among mosquito populations in ZIKV epidemiology. These findings suggest that similar human-specialist populations of Ae. aegypti in the nearby Sahel region of West Africa, which may be expanding in response to rapid urbanization, could serve as effective vectors for ZIKV in the future.</p>

DOI10.1371/journal.pbio.3001864
Alternate JournalPLoS Biol
PubMed ID36288328
PubMed Central IDPMC9604947
Grant ListR00 DC012069 / DC / NIDCD NIH HHS / United States