Emerging therapeutic targets in metastatic progression: A focus on breast cancer.
Metastasis is the underlying cause of death for the majority of breast cancer patients. Despite significant advances in recent years in basic research and clinical development, therapies that specifically target metastatic breast cancer remain inadequate, and represents the single greatest obstacle to reducing mortality of late-stage breast cancer. Recent efforts have leveraged genomic analysis of breast cancer and molecular dissection of tumor-stromal cross-talk to uncover a number of promising candidates for targeted treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Rational combinations of therapeutic agents targeting tumor-intrinsic properties and microenvironmental components provide a promising strategy to develop precision treatments with higher specificity and less toxicity. In this review, we discuss the emerging therapeutic targets in breast cancer metastasis, from tumor-intrinsic pathways to those that involve the host tissue components, including the immune system.