Drosophila Dosage Compensation Loci Associate with a Boundary-Forming Insulator Complex.
Chromatin entry sites (CES) are 100- to 1,500-bp elements that recruit male-specific lethal (MSL) complexes to the X chromosome to upregulate expression of X-linked genes in male flies. CES contain one or more ∼20-bp GA-rich sequences called MSL recognition elements (MREs) that are critical for dosage compensation. Recent studies indicate that CES also correspond to boundaries of X-chromosomal topologically associated domains (TADs). Here, we show that an ∼1,000-kDa complex called the late boundary complex (LBC), which is required for the functioning of the Bithorax complex boundary , interacts specifically with a special class of CES that contain multiple MREs. Mutations in the MRE sequences of three of these CES that disrupt function abrogate interactions with the LBC. Moreover, reducing the levels of two LBC components compromises MSL recruitment. Finally, we show that several of the CES that are physically linked to each other are LBC interactors.