Cellular plasticity in bone metastasis.
Metastasis is responsible for a large majority of death from malignant solid tumors. Bone is one of the most frequently affected organs in cancer metastasis, especially in breast and prostate cancer. Development of bone metastasis requires cancer cells to successfully complete a number of challenging steps, including local invasion and intravasation, survival in circulation, extravasation and initial seeding, and finally, formation of metastatic colonies after a period of dormancy or indolent growth. During this process, cancer cells often undergo a series of cellular and molecular changes to gain cellular plasticity that helps them adapt to various environments they encounter along the journey of metastasis. Understanding the mechanisms behind cellular plasticity and adaptation during the formation of bone metastasis is crucial for the development of novel therapies.