Enquist Lab Publications

2014

Oyibo H, Znamenskiy P, Oviedo HV, Enquist L and Zador A (2014). Long-term Cre-mediated Retrograde Tagging of Neurons Using a Novel Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus. Front. Neuroanat. 8:86. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2014.00086

Card, J. P. and Enquist, L. W. 2014. Transneuronal Circuit Analysis with Pseudorabies Viruses. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 68:1.5:1.5.1–1.5.39.

Wojaczynski GJ, Engel EA, Steren KE, Enquist LW, Card JP. The neuroinvasive profiles of H129 (herpes simplex virus type 1) recombinants with putative anterograde-only transneuronal spread properties. Brain Struct Funct. Epub 2014 Mar 2.

Szpara ML, Gatherer D, Ochoa A, Greenbaum B, Dolan A, Bowden RJ, Enquist LW, Legendre M, Davison AJ. Evolution and diversity in human herpes simplex virus genomes. J Virol. 2014 Jan;88(2):1209-27. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

2013

Granstedt AE, Bosse JB, Thiberge SY, Enquist LW. In vivo imaging of alphaherpesvirus infection reveals sychronized activity dependent on axonal sorting of virual proteinsProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Sep 10;110(37):E3516-25. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Taylor MP, Kratchmarov R, Enquist LW. Live Cell Imaging of Alphaherpes Virus Anterograde Transport and Spread. J Vis Exp. 2013 Aug 16;(78).

Sun XR, Badura A, Pacheco DA, Lynch LA, Schneider ER, Taylor MP, Hogue IB, Enquist LW, Murthy M, Wang SS., Fast GCaMPs for improved tracking of neuronal activity.  Nat Commun. 2013 Jul 17;4:2170.

Kratchmarov R, Kramer T, Greco TM, Taylor MP, Ch'ng TH, Cristea IM, Enquist LWGlycoproteins gE and gI are required for efficient KIF1A-dependent anterograde axonal transport of alphaherpesvirus particles in neurons. J Virol. 2013 Sep;87(17):9431-40. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

Granstedt AE, Brunton BW, Enquist LW. Imaging the transport dynamics of single alphaherpesvirus particles in intact peripheral nervous system explants from infected mice. MBio. 2013 Jun 4;4(3) :e00358-13. 

Koyuncu OO, Hogue IB, Enquist LW. Virus Infections in the Nervous System. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 April 17; 13(4):379-93.

Kratchmarov R, Taylor MP, Enquist LW. Role of Us9 Phosphorylation in Axonal Sorting and Anterograde Transport of Pseudorabies Virus. PLoS One. 2013;8(3). Epub 2013 Mar 19.

Kramer T, Enquist LW. Directional Spread of Alphaherpesviruses in the Nervous System. Viruses 2013, 5, 678-707.

Koyuncu OO, Perlman DH, Enquist LW. Efficient Retrograde Transport of Pseudorabies Virus within Neurons Requires Local Protein Synthesis in Axons. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Jan 16;13(1):54-66. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

 

2012

Kramer T, Greco TM, Taylor MP, Ambrosini AE, Cristea IM, Enquist LW.  Kinesin-3 Mediates Axonal Sorting and Directional Transport of Alphaherpesvirus Particles in Neurons. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Dec 13;12(6):806-14.

Taylor MP, Kobiler O, Enquist LW. Alphaherpesvirus axon-to-cell spread involves limited virion transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012 171. Oct 16:109(42): 17046-17051.

Card JP, Enquist LW. "Use and Visualization of Neuroanatomical Viral Transneuronal Tracers." Visualization Techniques: From Immunohistochemistry to Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ed Emilio Badoer. Neuromethods, vol. 70, 2012, 225-268.

Kratchmarov R, Taylor MP, Enquist LW. Making the case: Married versus Separate models of alphaherpes virus anterograde transport in axons. Rev Med Virol. 2012 Jul 16:1-12.

Enquist LW. Ten Years under the JVI Flag. J Virol. 2012 Jul;86(13):7025-6. Epub 2012 May 30.

Kramer T, Enquist LW. Alphaherpesvirus infection disrupts mitochondrial transport in neurons. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 May 17;11(5):504-14.

Taylor MP, Kramer T, Lyman MG, Kratchmarov R, Enquist LW. Visualization of an Alphaherpesvirus Membrane Protein That Is Essential for Anterograde Axonal Spread of Infection in Neurons. mBio 2012 doi:10.1128/mBio.00063-12.

Enquist LW. Five Questions about Viral Trafficking in Neurons. PLoS Pathog. 2012 Feb;8(2):e1002472. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

2011

Kobiler O, Brodersen P, Taylor MP, Ludmir EB, Enquist LW. Herpesvirus replication compartments originate with single incoming viral genomes. MBio. 2011 Dec 20;2(6). pii: e00278-11. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00278-11. Print 2011.

Szpara ML, Tafuri YR, Parsons L, Shamim SR, Legendre M, Verstrepen KJ, Enquist LW. A wide extent of inter-strain diversity in virulent and vaccine strains of alphaherpesviruses. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Oct;7(10):e1002282. Epub 2011 Oct 13. Supplemental: Genome Browser and Supplementary Data Site.

Szpara ML, Tafuri YR, Enquist LW. Preparation of viral DNA from nucleocapsids. J Vis Exp. 2011 Aug 16;(54):3151. Link to Video.

Card JP, Kobiler O, Ludmir EB, Desai V, Sved AF, Enquist LW. A dual infection pseudorabies virus conditional reporter approach to identify projections to collateralized neurons in complex neural circuits. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(6):e21141. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Haugo AC, Szpara ML, Parsons L, Enquist LW, Roller RJ. Herpes simplex virus type 1 pUL34 plays a critical role in cell-to-cell spread of virus in addition to its role in virus replication. J Virol. 2011 Jul;85(14):7203-15. Epub 2011 May 11.

Kramer T, Greco TM, Enquist LW, Cristea IM. Proteomic Characterization of Pseudorabies Virus Extracellular Virions. J Virol. 2011 Jul;85(13):6427-41. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Taylor MP, Koyuncu OO, Enquist LW. Subversion of the actin cytoskeleton during viral infection. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011 Jun;9(6):427-39. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Card JP, Kobiler O, McCambridge J, Ebdlahad S, Shan Z, Raizada MK, Sved AF, Enquist LW. Microdissection of neural networks by conditional reporter expression from a Brainbow herpesvirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011 Feb 22;108(8):3377-82. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

2010

Kobiler O, Lipman Y, Therkelsen K, Daubechies I, Enquist LW. Herpesviruses carrying a Brainbow cassette reveal replication and expression of limited numbers of incoming genomes. Nat Commun. 2010 Dec;1(9):146.

Szpara ML, Kobiler O, Enquist LW. A Common Neuronal Response to Alphaherpesvirus Infection. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol (2010) 5:418-427

Szpara ML, Parson L, Enquist LW. Sequence variability in clinical and lab isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 reveals new mutations. J Virol. 2010 May;84(10):5303-13. Epub 2010 Mar 10. Supplemental: Genome Browser and Link to Raw Data

Granstedt AE, Kuhn B, Wang SS, Enquist LW. Calcium imaging of neuronal circuits in vivo using a circuit-tracing pseudorabies virus. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2010 Apr;2010(4):pdb.prot5410.

2009

Curanovic D, Enquist LW. Directional transneuronal spread of alpha-herpesvirus infection. Future Virol., 4(6):591-603, 2009.

McCarthy KM, Tank DW, Enquist LW. Pseudorabies Virus Infection Alters Neuronal Activity and Connectivity In Vitro. PLoS Pathogens, 4(10):31000640, 2009.

Granstedt AE, Szpara ML, Kuhn B, Wang SS-H, Enquist LW. Fluorescence-based monitoring of in vivo neural activity using a circuit-tracing pseudorabies virus. PLoS One, 4(9):e6923, 2009.

Ludmir EB, Enquist LW. Viral genomes are part of the phylogenetic tree of life. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 7(8):615, 2009.

Curanovic D, Enquist LW. Virion-incorporated glycoprotein B mediates transneuronal spread of pseudorabies virus. J. Virol., 83(16):7796-7804, 2009.

Curanovic D, Ch'ng TH, Szpara M, Enquist LW. Compartmented neuron cultures for directional infection by alpha herpesviruses. Curr. Prot. Cell Biol., 43:26.4.1-26.4.23, 2009

Lyman MG, Kemp CD, Taylor MP, Enquist LW. Comparison of the pseudorabies virus Us9 with homologs from other veterinary and human alphaherpesviruses. J. Virol., 83(14):6978-6986, 2009.

Enquist LW for the Editors of the Journal of Virology. Virology in the 21st Century. J. Virol., 83(11):5296-5308, 2009.

Braz JM, Enquist LW, Basbaum AI. Inputs to Serotonergic Neurons Revealed by Conditional Viral Transneuronal Tracing. J. Comp. Neurol., 514:145-160, 2009.

Lyman M, Enquist LW. Herpesvirus Interactions with the Host Cytoskeleton. J. Virol., 83(5):2058-2066, 2009.

Curanovic D, Lyman MG, Bou-Abboud C, Card JP, Enquist LW. Repair of the UL21 locus in PRV Bartha enhances the kinetics of retrograde, transeuronal infection in vitro and in vivo. J. Virol., 83(3):1173-1183, 2009.

2008

Zaidi FN, Todd K, Enquist LW, Whitehead MC. Types of taste circuits synaptically linked to a few geniculate ganglion neurons. J Comp Neurol. 511(6):753-72, 2008.

Lyman MG, Curanovic D, Brideau AD, Enquist LW. Fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein to the pseudorabies virus axonal sorting protein Us9 blocks anterograde spread of infection in mammalian neurons. J Virol., 82(20):10308-10311, 2008.

Liu WW, Goodhouse J, Jeon NL, Enquist LW. A microfluidic chamber for analysis of neuron-to-cell spread and axonal transport of an alpha-herpesvirus. PLoS ONE, 3(6):e2382, 2008.

Lyman MG, Curanovic D, Enquist LW. Targeting of pseudorabies virus structural proteins to axons requires association of the viral Us9 protein with lipid rifts. PLoS Patho., 4(5):e1000065, 2008.

Ekstrand MI, Enquist LW, Pomeranz LE. The alpha-herpesviruses: molecular pathfinders in nervous system circuits. Tr. Mol. Med., 14(3):134-140, 2008.

2007

Lyman MG, Feierbach B, Curanovic D, Bisher M, Enquist LW. Pseudorabies virus us9 directs axonal sorting of viral capsids. J Virol., 81(20):11363-11371, 2007.

Favoreel HW, Enquist LW, Feierbach B. Actin and Rho GTPases in herpesvirus biology. Tr Microbiol., 15(9):426-433, 2007.

Ch'ng TH, Spear PG, Struyf F, Enquist LW. Glycoprotein D-independent spread of pseudorabies virus infection in cultured peripheral nervous system neurons in a compartmented system. J Virol., 81(19):10742-10757, 2007.

Viney TJ, Balint K, Hillier D, Siegert S, Boldogkoi Z, Enquist LW, Meister M, Cepko CL, Roska B. Local Retinal Circuits of Melanopsin- Containing Ganglion Cells Identified by Transsynaptic Viral Tracing. Curr Biol., 17(11):981-988, 2007.

Feierbach B, Bisher M, Goodhouse J, Enquist LW. In vitro analysis of trans-neuronal spread of an alpha-herpesvirus infection in peripheral nervous system neurons. J Virol., 81(13):6846-6857, 2007.

2006

Reynolds AE, Enquist LW. Biological interactions between herpesviruses and cyclooxygenase enzymes. Rev Med Virol., 16(6):393-403, 2006.

Feierbach B, Piccinotti S, Bisher M, Denk W, Enquist LW. Alpha-herpesvirus infection induces the formation of nuclear actin filaments. PLoS Pathog., 2(8):e85, 2006.

Brukman A, Enquist LW. Pseudorabies virus EP0 protein counteracts an interferon-induced antiviral state in a species-specific manner. J Virol., 80(21):10871-3, 2006.

Olsen LM, Ch'ng TH, Card JP, Enquist LW. Role of Pseudorabies Virus Us3 Protein Kinase during Neuronal Infection. J. Virol., 80(13):6387-6398, 2006.

Brukman A, Enquist LW. Suppression of the Interferon-mediated Innate Immune Response by Pseudorabies virus. J. Virol., 80(13):6345-6356, 2006.

Ch'ng T, Enquist LW. An in vitro system to study trans-neuronal spread of pseudorabies virus infection. Vet. Microbiol., 113:193-197, 2006.

Paulus C, Sollars PJ, Pickard GE, Enquist LW. Transcriptome signature of virulent and attenuated pseudorabies virus-infected rodent brain. J. Virol., 80(4):1773-1786, 2006.

Schwartz JA, Brittle EE, Reynolds AE, Enquist LW, Silverstein SJ. UL54-null pseudorabies virus is attenuated in mice but productively infects cells in culture. J. Virol., 80(2):769-784, 2006.

2005

Yoon H, Enquist LW, Dulac C. Olfactory inputs to hypothalamic neurons controlling reproduction and fertility. Cell, 123(4):669-682, 2005.

Pomeranz LE, Reynolds AE, Hengartner CJ. Molecular biology of pseudorabies virus: impact on neurovirology and veterinary medicine. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 69(3):462-500, 2005.

Wang F, Tang W, McGraw HM, Bennett J, Enquist LW, Friedman HM. Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein E is required for axonal localization of capsids, tegument, and membrane glycoproteins. J. Virol., 79(21):13362-13372, 2005.

Ch'ng TH, Enquist LW. Neuron-to-cell spread of pseudorabies virus in a compartmented neuronal culture system. J. Virol., 79(17):10875-10889, 2005.

Ch'ng TH, Enquist LW. Efficient axonal localization of alphaherpesvirus structural proteins in cultured sympathetic neurons requires viral glycoprotein E. J. Virol., 79(14)8835-8846, 2005.

del Rio T, DeCoste CJ, Enquist LW. Actin is a component of the compensation mechanism in pseudorabies virus virions lacking the major tegument protein VP22. J. Virol., 79(13)8614-8619, 2005.

Song CK, Enquist LW, Bartness TJ. New developments in tracing neural circuits with herpesviruses. Virus Res., 111:235-249, 2005.

del Rio T, Ch'ng TH, Flood EA, Gross SP, Enquist LW. Heterogeneity of a fluorescent tegument component in single pseudorabies virus virions and enveloped axonal assemblies. J. Virol., 79(7):3903-3919.

Geenen K, Favoreel HW, Olsen L, Enquist LW, Nauwynck HJ. The pseudorabies virus Us3 protein kinase possesses anti-apoptotic activity that protects cells from apoptosis during infection and after treatment with sorbitol or staurosporin. Virology, 331(1):144-150.

2004

Ray N, Bisher ME, Enquist LW. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 are required for production of infectious pseudorabies virus. J. Virol., 78(23):12964-74.

Brittle EE, Reynolds AE, Enquist LW. Two modes of pseudorabies virus neuroinvasion and lethality in mice. J. Virol., 78(23):12951-12963.

Ch'ng TH, Flood, AE, Enquist, LW. Culturing primary and transformed neuronal cells for stydying pseudorabies infection. Methods Mol. Biol., 292:299-316.

Smith GA, Pomeranz L, Gross SP, Enquist LW. Local modulation of plus-end transport targets herpesvirus entry and egress in sensory axons. PNAS, 101(45):16034-16039.

Ray N, Enquist LW. Ttranscriptional response of a common permissive cell type to infection by two diverse alpha herpesviruses. J. Virol., 78(7):3489-3501.
Supplemental Information

Smeraski CA, Sollars PJ, Ogilvie MD, Enquist LW, Pickard GE. Suprachiasmatic nucleus input to autonomic circuits identified by retrograde transsynaptic transport of pseudorabies virus from the eye. J. Comp. Neurol., 471:298-313.

Klupp BG, Hengartner CJ, Mettenleiter TC, Enquist LW. Complete, annotated sequence of the pseudorabies virus genome. J. Virol., 78(1):424-440.

2003

Enquist LW, Card JP. Recent advances in the use of neurotropic viruses for circuit analysis. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 13:603-606.

Clase AC, Lyman MG, del Rio T, Randall JA, Calton CM, Enquist LW, Banfield BW. The pseudorabies virus Us2 gene product, a virion tegument component, is prenylated in infected cells. J. Virol., 77(22):12285-12298.

Kerman IA, Enquist LW, Watson SJ, Yates BJ. Brainstem substrates of sympatho-motor circuitry identified using trans-synaptic tracing with pseudorabies virus recombinants. J. Neuroscience. 23:4657-4666.

2002

Serrano F, Enquist LW, Card JP. Pseudorabies virus induced expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms. Physiol. and Behavior 77:557-563.

Enquist LW. Exploiting Circuit-specific Spread of PRV in the Central Nervous System: Insights to Pathogenesis and Circuit Tracers. J. Inf. Disease 186 Suppl 2:S209-S214.

Fuchs W, Klupp BG, Granzow H, Hengartner C, Brack A, Mundt A, Enquist LW, Mettenleiter TC. Physical interaction between envelope glycoproteins E and M of pseudorabies virus and the major tegument protein UL49. J. Virol, 76:8208-8217.

Tomishima MJ, Enquist LW. In vivo egress of an alphaherpesvirus from axons. J. Virol. 76:8310-8317.

Enquist LW, Tomishima MJ, Gross S, Smith GA. Directional spread of an alpha-herpesvirus in the nervous system. Vet. Micro. 86:5-16.

Smith GA, Enquist LW. Break Ins and Break Outs: Viral Interactions with the Cytoskeleton of Mammalian Cells. Ann. Rev. Cell and Devel. Bio. 18:135-161.

Favoreel HW, Van Minnebruggen G, Nauwynck HJ, Enquist LW, Pensaert MB. A tyrosine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein B is important for both antibody-induced internalization of viral glycoproteins and efficient cell-to-cell spread. J. Virol., 76(13):6845-6851.

Carlen M, Cassidy RM, Brismar H, Smith GA, Enquist LW, Frisen J. Functional integration of adult-born neurons. Curr. Biol., 12(7):606-608.

Pickard GE, Smeraski CA, Tomlinson CC, Banfield BW, Kaufman J, Wilcox CL, Enquist LW, Sollars PJ. Intravitreal injection of the attenuated pseudorabies virus PRV Bartha results in infection of the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus only by retrograde transsynaptic transport via autonomic circuits. J. Neuroscience, 22(7):2701-2710.

Yu D, Smith GA, Enquist LW, Shenk T. Construction of a self-excisable bacterial artificial chromosome containing the human cytomegalovirus genome and mutagenesis of the diploid TRL/IRL13 gene. J. Virol., 76(5):2316-2328.

del Rio T, Werner HC, Enquist LW. The pseudorabies virus VP22 homologue (UL49) is dispensable for virus growth in vitro and has no effect on virulence and neuronal spread in rodents. J. Virol., 76(2):774-782.

2001

Demmin GL, Clase AC, Randall JA, Enquist LW, Banfield BW. Insertions in the gG gene of pseudorabies virus reduce expression of the upstream Us3 protein and inhibit cell-to-cell spread of virus infection. J. Virol., 75(22):10856-10869.

Tomishima MJ, Enquist LW. A conserved alpha-herpesvirus protein necessary for axonal localization of viral membrane proteins. J. Cell Biol., 154:741-752.

Tomishima MJ, Smith GA, Enquist LW. Sorting and transport of alpha herpesviruses in axons. Traffic, 2:429-436.

DeFalco J, Tomishima M, Liu H, Zhao C, Cai X, Marth JD, Enquist L, Friedman JM. Virus-assisted mapping of neural inputs to a feeding center in the hypothalamus. Science, 291:2608-2613.

Smith GA, Gross SP, Enquist LW. Herpesviruses use bidirectional fast-axonal transport to spread in sensory neurons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 98(6):3466-3470.

2000

 

Husak PJ, Kuo T, Enquist LW. Pseudorabies virus membrane proteins gI and gE facilitate anterograde spread of infection in projection-specific neurons in the rat. J. Virol., 74:10975-10983.

Billig I, Foris JM, Enquist LW, Card JP, Yates BJ. Definition of neuronal circuitry controlling the activity of phrenic and abdominal motoneurons in the ferret using recombinant strains of pseudorabies virus. J. Neurosci., 20:7446-7454.

Smith BN, Banfield BW, Smeraski CA, Wilcox CL, Dudek FE, Enquist LW, Pickard GE. Pseudorabies virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein: A tool for in vitro electrophysiological analysis of transsynaptically labeled neurons in identified central nervous system circuits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 97:9264-9269.

Brideau AD, Enquist LW, Tirabassi RS. The role of virion membrane protein endocytosis in the herpesvirus life cycle. J. Clinical Virol., 17:69-82.

Brideau AD, Eldridge MG, Enquist LW. Directional transneuronal infection by pseudorabies virus is dependent on an acidic internalization motif in the Us9 cytoplasmic tail. J. Virol., 74(10):4549-4561.

Smith GA, Enquist LW. A self-recombining bacterial artificial chromosome and its application for anlaysis of herpesvirus pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97(9):4873-4878.

Brack AR, Klupp BG, Granzow H, Tirabassi R, Enquist LW, Mettenleiter TC. Role of the cytoplasmic tail of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein E in virion formation. J. Virol., 74(9):4004-16.

Tirabassi RS, Enquist LW. Role of the pseudorabies virus gI cytoplasmic domain in neuroinvasion, virulence, and posttranslational N-linked glycosylation. J. Virol., 74(8):3505-16.

Brideau AD, Card JP, Enquist LW. Role of pseudorabies virus Us9, a type II membrane protein, in infection of tissue culture cells and the rat nervous system. J. Virol., 74:834-845.

 

1999

 

Flint J, Enquist LW, Krug R, Racaniello V, Skalka A. Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology, Pathogenesis and Control. ASM Press, Washington DC.

Card JP, Enquist LW. Transneuronal circuit analysis with pseudorabies viruses. Curr. Prot. Neurosci. Supp. 9, Unit 1:1-27.

Kim JS, Enquist LW, Card JP. Circuit-specific coinfection of neurons in the rat central nervous system with two pseudorabies virus recombinants. J. Virol. 73:9521-9531.

Smith GA, Enquist LW. Construction and transposon mutagenesis in Escherichia coli of a full-length infectious clone of pseudorabies virus, an alphaherpesvirus. J. Virol. 73:6405-6414.

Sparks-Thissen RL, Enquist LW. Differential regulation of Dk and Kk major histocompatibility complex class I proteins on the cell surface after infection of murine cells by pseudorabies virus. J. Virol. 73:5748-5756.

Brideau AD, del Rio T, Wolffe EJ, Enquist LW. Intracellular trafficking and localization of the pseudorabies virus Us9 type II envelope protein to host and viral membranes. J. Virol., 73:4372-4384.

Yang M, Card JP, Tirabassi RS, Miselis RR, Enquist LW. Retrograde, transneuronal spread of pseudorabies virus in defined neuronal circuitry of the rat brain is facilitated by gE mutations that reduce virulence. J. Virol., 73:4350-4359.

Tirabassi RS, Enquist LW. Mutation of the YXXL endocytosis motif in the cytoplasmic tail of pseudorabies virus gE. J. Virol., 73:2717-2728.

Enquist LW. Life beyond eradication: veterinary viruses in basic science. Arch. Virol. 15:87-109.

Card JP, Enquist LW, Moore RY. Neuroinvasiveness of pseudorabies virus injected intracerebrally is dependent on viral concentration and terminal field density. J. Comp. Neurol., 407:438-452.

Enquist LW, Husak PJ, Banfield BW, Smith GA. Infection and spread of alphaherpesviruses in the nervous system. Advances in Virus Research, 51:237-347.